INDEX

4-2-2 TENDER ENGINES

Works
List
Class/
Series
Wheel
arrange-
ment
Wheels
diam.
Boiler
diam.
Built Ivatt
Class
G 1 etc 4-2-2 8'-1" 4'-0½" 1870-83 -
Reboilered
4'-0½" to 4'-2"
  " " 4'-2" 1880-89 A2
             
G2 771 etc " " 4'-2" 1884 A2
Reboilered
domed boiler
  " " domed 4'-2" 1896-99 A3
             
G3 1003-08 " " " 1894-95 A1
Reboilered
domed boiler
1007 " " domed 4'-2" 1907 A1
             
W 266 4-2-2 7'-8" 4'-5" 1897 A4
W2 267 " " " 1900-01 A5

STURROCK

No. 215 CLASS 4-2-2

7ft-6in wheels, cyls 17½in x 24in

No. 215 was built by R & W Hawthorn and delivered to the GNR in August 1853, but never lived up to Sturrock's expectations. Stirling got rid of it at the earliest opportunity.  It had a heavy overhaul as late as mid-1866 so couldn't be scrapped for a while.  It was withdrawn in October 1869, though its driving wheel centres were good enough to pass on to Stirling's 2-2-2 No. 92 which appeared a few months later.

 
Fig. 19
No. 215

STIRLING

Stirling designed his own 4-2-2 and profited from the experience of No. 215's performance, which ensured he got it right first time.

No. 1 CLASS
WORKS LIST G

8ft wheels, cyls 18in x 28in

Nos. 1, 8, 33, 2, 3, 5, 7, 22/48/34/47/53/62, 221, 94/69/98, 544-49, 60, 550, 93/95 were built 1877-80. 

These early 4-2-2s had 4ft-0½in diameter boilers. 

The cylinders were located outside the frames, unique for Stirling on the GNR though he had built outside-cylinders 2-2-2s for the G&SWR.  The reason in this instance was his adoption of 8ft diameter driving wheels, which left little room for an inside crank axle.  The diameter of the cylinders was 18in and their stroke was 28in.  The first engine had balanced slide valves, but these must have been troublesome as thereafter Stirling only ever fitted ordinary slide valves.  The steam chests were located between the frames with large vertical slide valves.  The cylinder and its steam chest were in one casting, so there had to be large cut-out in the frames for the casting.  This created a weak point which later had to be strengthened.

 
Fig. 44
No. 1 as built

No.1 originally had a shorter firebox casing, 5ft-6in long. All later engines had casings that were 6ft-2in long.  No. 1 was brought into line when it was rebuilt in 1880.

The engines down to No. 62 had 4ft-0in (nominal) diameter trailing wheels, with volute springs above them.  From No. 221 larger trailing wheels were fitted (4ft-7in) which enabled the volute springs to be dispensed with, as there was now sufficient room for laminated springs below the axleboxes.  All the early engines were afterwards brought into line.

No. 1 CLASS
WORKS LIST G
IVATT CLASS A2

8ft wheels, cyls 18in x 28in

No. 1 received a 4ft-2in diameter boiler when it was rebuilt (12/1880).

Afterwards Nos. 662-71, 771-75 were built with 4ft-2in diameter boilers (1881-87).  The remaining earlier engines were brought into line (1882-91).

In general the engines received the simple vacuum brake equipment around 1876-77 whilst still carrying small boilers and the automatic type around 1887-88 after receiving larger boilers.  No 772 was the first one fitted with the automatic brake when new (3/1885).

In the early days the profile of the frames in the vicinity of the smokebox went through many changes, then from No. 771 onwards (built 11/1884) new engines had frames that were 4in higher alongside the firebox.  The reason for this latter change appears to be simply to strengthen the frames.  To maintain the correct pitch of the boiler barrel, i.e. its height above rail level, it was necessary for the expansion brackets to be bolted to the next level up of firebox stay bolts.  The distance between the boiler barrel centre line and the expansion bracket centre line was now 2ft-8¾in instead of 3ft-0¾in.  In addition to all the later 4-2-2s down to No. 1002 having high frames a number of earlier engines were similarly fitted with new frames to the raised height.  As far as is known no frames simply had new plating added, so the provision of high frames was an expensive operation and only undertaken when completely new frames were necessary.  The frames were being replaced from 1880 onwards, before this latest modification had been decided upon, so the engines with high frames were limited to later frame changes.  To assist distinguishing between boilers having high or low expansion brackets, the numbers of the engine with high frames were entered on the appropriate General Plan drawing (Q48).  The older engines with high frames were listed as Nos. 2, 3, 7, 22, 33/34, 53, 93/95, 221 and 544.  Unfortunately, if the list was incomplete the Works would have probably corrected their copy, but would not have notified the drawing office.  Following the chain of engines subsequently fitted with a particular boiler does not really help.  The inner copper fireboxes would have been replaced after, say, every ten years, and as the expansion brackets were obviously removed at the same time, they could have been replaced at either height.

Independent of the raising of the position of the expansion bracket on the firebox side, at about the same time the depths of the firebox (casing and inner copper box) were increased by 4¾in.  The respective new depths from the boiler centre line to the bottom of the firebox were increased by from 4ft-7¾in to 5ft-0in at the rear and from 5ft-1¾in to 5ft-6in at the front.  In general  these deep fireboxes were fitted to later 4-2-2s (except Nos. 1003-08) and the 234 Class 2-2-2s.  The later replacement boilers for the 4-2-2s (but not the 2-2-2s) all appear to have had shallow fireboxes, Ivatt having been concerned about high axle loadings on these particular engines causing rail breakages.

Ivatt rebuilt several 4-2-2s with domed boilers and, in the cases of Nos. 34 (December 1897) and 221 (June 1899), also with new cylinders with balanced slides valves.

No. 776 SERIES
WORKS LIST G2
IVATT CLASS A2

Nos. 776-78, 1001 (ex-264), 1002 (ex-265) were built 1887-93. 

 
Fig. 76
No. 776 with helical driving
wheel springs

These engines had helical bearing springs for the driving wheels.

No. 1003 CLASS
WORKS LIST G3
IVATT CLASS A1

8ft-1in wheels, cyls 19½in x 28in.

Cylinders dwg M59 (2/1894) issued,
General Plan dwg Q51 (12/1894) for Express pass engines 8'-0" wheels 19½" x 28" Cyls, Nos. 1003,1004,1005,1006 &c.

Nos. 1003-08 were built 1894-95.

 
Fig. 85
No. 1003 with latest
Stirling boiler

These engines had 19½in diameter cylinders and their slide valves were set at a slant from the vertical so that they fell away from the port faces when steam was shut off.  Their boilers had 4in shorter barrels and 8in longer firebox casings than the earlier 4-2-2s.  Their boilers were also pitched 3½in higher.

IVATT REBUILDS WITH DOMED BOILERS

IVATT CLASS A3

General Plan dwg Q59 (1/1899) Nos. 22 etc rebuilt domed boilers.

Ivatt fitted Nos. 22, 34, 93/95, 221, 544, 776 with domed boilers (1896-99).

Fig. 117
No. 93 with Ivatt boiler

IVATT CLASS A1

No. 1007 was given a new boiler (5/1907) with similar proportions to the earlier 4-2-2s, but with a dome.

POST STIRLING NEW BOILERS

Outstanding Singles boilers ordered by Stirling and completed in 1896 were as follows:

High frames, deep firebox Nos. 234 (1/1896), 773 (3/1896), 874 (9/1896),
Low frames, shallow firebox No. 664 (8/1896).

Ivatt placed six orders between 1896 and 1901 as follows:

Ordered 1896, narrow fireboxes, 6in longer than standard, high frames, deep fireboxes, wash-out plugs on firebox sides, boiler barrels 2in shorter than standard, domes:
Nos. 93 (6/1896), 776 (7/1896), 544 (5/1897), 95 (8/1897), 34 (12/1897), 22 (1/1898), 221 (6/1899).

Boiler Order 204 (undated, but would be around 1896-97), normal width fireboxes, high frames, deep fireboxes, wash-out plugs on firebox sides, domes:
Nos. 873 (4/1898), 240 (7/1898), 876 (3/1899), 871 (8/1899), 233 (9/1899).

Boiler Order 507 (undated, but would be around 9/1897), narrow width fireboxes, high frames, shallow fireboxes, wash-out plugs on firebox sides, no domes:
Nos. 94 (5/1898), 69 (6/1898), 771 (7/1898).

Boiler Order 514  (12/7/1898), narrow fireboxes, both high and low frames, shallow fireboxes, wash-out plugs on firebox sides, no domes:
Nos. 548 (3/1899), 7 (6/1899), 670 (7/1899), 778 (8/1900), 664 (9/1900 at Ardsley), 2 (12/1900).

Boiler Order 522 (27/4/1899), normal width fireboxes, high frames, deep fireboxes, wash-out plugs on firebox sides, domes)
Nos. 872 (5/1901 at King's Cross), 877 (11/1901), 235 (8/1902), 236 (3/1903), 880 (5/1903).

Final Singles Boiler Order 537 (14/3/1901) narrow fireboxes, low frames, shallow fireboxes, wash-out plugs on firebox sides, domes, intended for the 4-2-2s but amended (1902) to be normal width fireboxes, but too late to have any effect, as the material had been ordered.

These were fitted to Nos. (0-8-2T) 116 (fitted at short notice 8/1903), 871 (6/1906), 877 (7/1906), 1007 (5/1907), 872 (5/1910), (0-8-2T) 128 (12/1910).
The fitting to No. 1007 seems to have been an attempt to bring the 1003 Class into line with the No. 1 Class, but rather late in the day.

When No. 116 received its replacement boiler, the chief draughtsman at Doncaster noted the internal dimensions of the copper firebox.  These were 5ft-5¾in long, 3ft-3¼in wide, height 5ft-2¼in at the back and 5ft-8¼in at the front.  The boiler had 174 X 1¾in diameter small tubes, and the tube length was 11ft-9½in.

No further boilers were ordered for the large Stirling Singles.  The last small Single-wheeler to be given a new boiler was No. 55 (9/1903, with a domed boiler); the engine was scrapped just short of three years later (7/1906).

IVATT NEW ENGINES

Order
No.

Ordered
Works
List

Engine numbers

Built

Class
210 21/12/1897 W 266 1898 A4
215 5/1/1899 W2 267 1900 A5
222 1/8/1900 W2 92,100, 261-65/68-70 1901 A5

No. 266 CLASS
WORKS LIST W
IVATT CLASS A4

7ft-6in wheels, cyls 18¼in x 26in

No. 266 was built in October 1898.

Fig. 100
No. 266

This engine was based on Stirling's successful 7ft-6in singles but with 4ft-5in diameter boilers, barrels 11ft-4in long, firebox casings 7ft-0in long.  The wheel spacing was the same as in the 1003 Class, except for the 6ft-3in wheelbase bogie.  This was a successful design but they were by then outclassed by heavier train loads for which the new 4-4-2 Atlantics were better suited.  However Ivatt was perplexed by the sluggishness of his 4-4-2s (referred to by Groves), which may have been simply yet another example of having cylinders outside the frames and steam chests between them.

No. 267 CLASS
WORKS LIST W2
IVATT CLASS A5

7ft-6in wheels, cyls 19in x 26in

Cylinders dwg M78 (7/1898) for No. 267,
General Plan dwg Q57 (10/1898) for EO 215.

Nos. 267 was built in May 1900 and Nos. 92, 100, 261-65/68-70 appeared during 1901.

 
Fig. 105
No. 267

These engines were based on the preceding No. 266, but with cylinders slightly larger in diameter (19in instead of 18¼in).  This left insufficient room between the cylinders for the usual vertically arranged slide valves.  Therefore Richardson balanced-slide valves were located horizontally above the cylinders, actuated by a system of rocking shafts with Stephenson link motion. Ivatt employed a similar arrangement in his forthcoming Class K1 0-8-0s which appeared in 1901.  The working pressure was also raised from 170lb to 175lb/sq in.  One spare boiler was made in 1908 to facilitate boiler repairs.  Two were in fact ordered (BO 579, issued 7/10/1907) but only one was made. This spare was fitted to No. 100 (7/1908) whose displaced boiler was not used again. So once more there was no spare boiler for these engines.  The entire class was taken out of traffic in December 1917.  The engines were stored without their tenders, which were urgently needed for new engines currently being delivered from contractors without tenders.  They were all recorded as "broken up" in July 1918.

Preamble,  Plant Works,  A 4-6-2B 2-2-2C 4-4-2C 4-4-2TD 4-4-0E 2-4-0F 0-4-2F 0-4-2T,
G 0-4-4TH 2-6-0,  J 0-6-0,  J 0-6-0ST J 0-6-0T K 0-8-0L 0-8-2T,  MC Motor coachN 0-6-2T,
O 2-8-0